The Enlightenment and the Origins of the French Revolution

 

1.  The Enlightenment

 

    - the 18th cent. as the Age of Reason

    - inspiration from the Scientific Revolution

 

    - shared beliefs of the Enlightenment thinkers

      - faith in reason

      - positive understanding of human nature

      - belief in progress

 

    - the Philosophes

      - Voltaire (1694-1778)

      - Diderot (1713-1784)

      - Montesquieu (1689-1755)

 

    - dissemination of Enlightenment ideas

      - published materials

      - the salons

      - coffee shops

 

    - consequences of Enlightenment philosophy

 

2.  The Origins of the French Revolution

 

    - grievances of the Third Estate

      - peasants

      - the urban poor (the sans-culottes)

      - the middle classes

 

    - grievances of the Second Estate

      - the aristocracy

 

    - grievances of the First Estate

      - the clergy