Spring Quarter 2005


History 111: The History of Western Civilization from Ancient Times to the mid-seventeenth century

Lecturer: Geoffrey Parker

Office hours: Tuesdays 2-3:15 in DH 167; Wednesdays 3-4 in Mershon Center 105A


Required textbooks: John P. McKay, John Buckler and Bennett D. Hill, A history of Western society, 8th edition, vol. I; Perry Rogers, Aspects of Western Civilization, 5th edn., vol. I; The Prentice Hall Atlas of Western Civilization


Lecture topics and assignments

Date Topic Textbook Chapters ____________________________________________________________________________

Week I: The origins of Western Civilization

Mar 28 Before the first farmers chs. 1-2

Mar 30 The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions

Apr 1 The Bronze Age empires, the Hebrews and Crete

Week II: Greece and Rome

Apr 4 The Greeks chs. 3-5

Apr 6 Hellenistic Culture

Apr 8 The rise of Roman power

Week III: Europe emerges

Apr 11 Imperial Rome chs. 5-7

Apr 13 Rome in crisis

Apr 15 The rise of Christianity

Week IV: The Early Middle Ages

Apr 18 The making of Europe chs. 7-8

Apr 20 Charlemagne and his enemies

Apr 22 Europe recovers

Week V: The High Middle Ages

Apr 25 The church triumphant ch. 9, 11


Apr 29 The Age of the Crusades Week VI: Europe in Crisis

May 2 The twelfth century chs. 10-11

May 4 Feudal Europe: church and state

May 6 The Black Death

Week VII: Life and death

May 9 The Renaissance ch. 13

May 11 Renaissance Society

May 13 The facts of life

Week VIII: The Age of Reformation

May 16 The quality of life chs. 14

May 18 The Reformation

May 20 Reactions to the Reformation

Week IX: The birth of modern freedom

May 23 The empire of Charles V ch. 14, 15

May 25 Philip II and the Dutch Revolt [Term paper due]

May 27 The Thirty Years War

Week X: Europe and the Wider World?

May 30 Memorial Day (no class)

June 1 Europe expands ch. 15

June 3 Europe triumphant?

Exam Week

June 8 Final Exam, 11:30-1:18


Discussion Section Syllabi (by Discussion Section Leader痴 last name)


Denice Fett



Map - This is a blank copy of the map that will be used for the exams.



Course components and conventions


1. Three lectures per week: MWF 11.30-12.18 in Hitchcock Hall 131

2. Two recitation sections per week. Attendance at and participation in sections is worth 15 percent of the total grade for the course; completion of assigned recitation exercises is worth a further 15 percent. Missing five or more recitation sections without an acceptable excuse will imperil your grade.

3. One paper on documents in Aspects of Western Civilization, worth 30 percent of the total grade for the course, due on May 25. Late papers submitted without an acceptable excuse will be penalized 5 per cent per day (weekends included.)

4. A mid-term exam, taken in the lecture hour on April 27 for 15 percent of the total grade for the course. It will consist of a map quiz (5 per cent of the total grade,) and three essays of which you must answer one (10 per cent of the total grade.)

5. A final exam (one hour and 48 minutes) for 25 per cent of the grade for the course, consisting of a map quiz (5 per cent of the total grade;) three essays taken from course work between 29 April and 3 June,) of which you must answer one (10 per cent of the total grade); and three essays covering issues arising from the course as a whole, of which you must answer one (10 per cent of the total grade).

6. Paperback editions of the three books are available in bookstores. The recitation sections will cover the material contained in them and in the lectures; so will the exams.

7. Students must take the mid-term and final exams in class at the time scheduled. A request for a 杜ake-up exam will be considered only for a documented illness or a documented family emergency. No exam will be given before the scheduled time.

8. You are forewarned that any case of academic misconduct will be referred to the appropriate University committee. For information on plagiarism and writing handouts see: http://cstw.ohio-state.edu/writing_center/handouts/index.htm

9. Students with questions about their grades must submit a letter in writing to their section leaders BEFORE approaching the lecturer about grading issues. 

10. All students with disabilities who need accommodations should see Geoffrey Parker
privately during his office hours to make arrangements.

11. All students must be officially enrolled in the course by the end of the second full week of the quarter. The department chairs will approve no requests to add the course after that time. Enrolling officially and on time is solely the responsibility of each student.

Lecture outlines and exam study questions for History 111, Spring 2005


Instructor: Geoffrey Parker


1 Before Civilization (4 million BC to 10,000 BC)



The Paleolithic Age

I. The five key events in human history: emergence of homo sapiens; end of the ice age; neolithic revolution; urban revolution; industrial revolution.

  • By 10,000 BC, perhaps 5 million humans inhabited the globe, most of them possessing five key indices of 田ivilization: tools; language; hierarchy; trade; art


2. Towards the Neolithic [= 渡ew stone age綻

The end of ice age (c 10,000 BC) produced a population explosion and new survival strategies, above all farming. Problems of assessing this key development: difficulties of excavation patterns, of preservation, of dating, of interpretation.


The end of the Ice Age and the beginning of history

2. The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions (10,000 BC to 2500 BC)


I. The Neolithic Revolution


Agriculture and animal husbandry both allowed the size of the human population to increase and created a network of permanent settlements in four distinct areas:


1. In Near East (c 7000 BC),

2. In China (Yellow River, 5000 BC; Yangtze, 4000 BC);

3. In W. Africa (c 4000 ?);

4. In the Americas (Peru, 3000 BC; Mexico, 2000 BC).


This in turn led to:


(i) more people;

(ii) more goods;

(iii) division of labor;

(iv) social hierarchy;

(v) cities.


II. The urban revolution


1) c 3500 BC - Mesopotamia (Tigris/Euphrates)

2) c 3100 BC - Egypt (Nile)

3) c 3000 BC - W. India (Indus)

4) c 2500 BC - S. China (Yellow River)


III The Spread Of Writing


A: 鉄ound Writing (e.g. Egyptian Hieroglyphs: C. 3000 BC); 鉄yllabic Script (each sign represents a sound: Sumerian Cuneiform: C. 3000 BC; 鏑inear A, Crete c. 1700-1600 BC; 鏑inear B Crete and Mycenean Greece c. 1450 - 1150 BC


B: 典hought Writing: Alphabets (small number of letters rearranged to form different words) e.g. Phoenician: c. 1700-1500 BC (consonants only); Greek c. 800-700 BC (first with vowel sounds)

3. The Bronze Age empires, the Hebrews and Crete (2500 BC to 1200 BC


I. Sargon of Akkad (2371-2316 BC), creator of first empire in history, from Mediterranean to Persian Gulf; Hammurabi of Babylon (1792-1750 BC) and his law code


II. The empires collapse

(a) The first wave: Indus states fell c 2000 BC; Babylon and Egypt c 1600 BC

(b) The second wave: Assyrians vs Middle East, 鉄ea Peoples vs Egypt c 1200 BC


III. The Hebrews


Moses and Exodus; the making of the Old Testament

(a) the Torah

(b) the Babylonian captivity and Isaiah


IV. Minoan Crete and Mycenae


  • The agricultural revolution in the Mediterranean: polyculture versus irrigation.
  • The rise of Mycenae on the ashes of Cnossus
  • The poems of Homer: Iliad and Odyssey

4. The Greeks (1200 BC to 335 BC)


I. Mycenae


- spread of the Greeks 1200-750; Homer; end of the 敵reek Dark Ages


II. The 菟olis (pl = 菟oleis)


  • Defeat of Persia (SALAMIS 480 BC) in Greece (though not in Asia Minor)
  • Athenian democracy: freedom of political speech and action; equality of all citizens; best preparation for decision is discussion; majority consent.


III. The culture of the 菟olis


1. medicine (HIPPOCRATES 460-377)

2. history (THUCYDIDES 460-400)

3. maths and music (PYTHAGORAS 580-497)

4. philosophy (SOCRATES 470-399; PLATO 427-347; ARISTOTLE 387-322)

5. drama (SOPHOCLES 496-406)

6. architecture and art (PARTHENON, built 447-438)

5. Hellenic Culture (335 BC to 27 BC)


I. The Greek achievement in perspective

a) the slaves and the polis

b) Athenian and Spartan imperialism (the 泥elian League)

c) the Peloponnesian War (431-404).


II. The rise of Macedon

a) Philip II (359-36)

b) Alexander the Great (336-23)

III. Achievement of the Hellenistic Age

a) example to others

b) extension of Greek cultural sphere - poleis in East; Koin, the new universal language

c) new trading opportunities

d) new knowledge - geographical [Ptolemy]; scientific

e) opened the way for Rome...


6. The rise of Roman power 509 BC 14 AD


I. Small beginnings

a) 509 BC Rome declares independence from ETRUSCANS city state (c 350 sq. m.)

b) 330 - 264 Rome conquers Greek colonies in S. Italy 10,000 sq. m. (and her allies 42,000 sq.m. ).

c) PUNIC WARS (264-41 and 221-202


II. Republican imperialism 202 - 133 BC

i) expansion North (N Italy), East (Macedon & Greece), and West (Spain)

ii) new wealth structural crisis of Republican government:


III. The fall of the Republic 133 - 27 BC

a) more conquests more citizens more problems

b) The failed dictators: Sulla, Pompey, Caesar, Mark Antony.


IV. Pax Romana 27 BC - 14 AD

a) Octavian Augustus and the principate: auctoritas v. potestas.

7. Imperial Rome (14- 304 AD)


I. Imperial Zenith

a) Vespasian and the 菟reclusive strategy

b) Pax Romana: 100 m people wnjoyed peace for 200 years


II. The 撤ax Romana: A golden Age for whom?

  • town-dwellers; travelers and traders; peasants; slaves.


III. Crisis and recovery 184-304 AD

a) 吐un emperors: Caligula (k 41), Commodus (k 192), Elagabalus (k 222)

b) Septimus Severus (193-211) and the rise of 澱arracks emperors

c) Diocletian (284-304), the army and the 鍍etrarchs

8: Rome in Crisis (300-550 AD)


I Collapse in the West

406-7: Rhine frontier breached;

410: Rome sacked by Visigoths

455: Rome sacked by Vandals

476: last Roman emperor in the West deposed

546: Rome itself abandoned


II Why?

A. Extrinsic causes: strength of invaders

B. Intrinsic causes: weakness of defenders

1. Plague; 2. inflation; 3. poor leaders -- unconvincing

4. overtaxation; 5. lack of public spirit -- insufficient


II The military explanation


(a) Trajan痴 column (erected c. 115)

(b) Rome痴 two military techniques: (i) 澱ellum romanum (ii) the tribute economy (the example of Vindolanda, N. England, 100-130 AD)

(c) defense in depth (especially in West, 275-375 AD).

9: The rise of Christianity (c. 1-400 AD)


I. Christianity


1. One of only 7 world religions: Zoroastrianism; Hinduism, Buddhism; Taoism, Confucianism; Judaism, Christianity, Islam.

2. Jesus and mainstream Judaism since the Babylonian captivity (6th century BC).

3. Paul turns Christianity into a universal faith, and into a political threat 313 AD

4. Constantine


II. Achievements of the proscribed church.

1. New Testament

2. Patristic writings (Origen & co)

3. Network of churches under five patriarchates (Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, Alexandria and Jerusalem)

4. After the council of Nicaea (325) -- 電ioceses; superiority over emperors (390); church痴 authority equal to Scripture (Augustine, c410)


10: The making of Europe (c. 400-700)



I. The collapse of Rome in context


300-600 AD: collapse of Han China, Gupta India and West Rome; crisis in Sassanid Persia and Byzantium


II. The invaders


1. Germanic tribes: Franks, Goths, Saxons, Lombards): adoptions from Rome (evidence of the Notitia Dignitatum).

2. Mongolic tribes: Avars, Bulgars, Magyars and later Turks


III. The Roman Legacy


Public works; Roman laws; Graeco-Roman culture; Latin language; Political institutions


IV. The channels


1. The Eastern Empire (Byzantium): Justinian (527-65)

2. The Roman church: the council of Chalcedon (451: 600 bishops)

11: Charlemagne and his enemies (700-843)


I. The challenge of Islam


Mohammed (570-632); schism (Shi段te versus Sunnite) and further expansion under Umayyads (661-750).


II. The heartland

a) the Anglo-Saxon world: Northumbria (Bede, Lindisfarne Gospels), Alcuin and the Carolingian connection.

b) Gaul: the Franks and the Merovingians; Charlemagne (768-814)


III. The collapse

Louis the Pious (814-40); the Treaty of Verdun (843); partition

12: Europe recovers (c. 800-1000)



I. The Vikings


1. Cultural relativism: Ohio versus Minnesota

2. The trade of the Vikings: Dorestad, Haithabu and Birka and the coin hoards.

3. The Viking achievement:

a) the first seaborne empire Russia; Atlantic Europe; Greenland;

b) America? L誕nse-aux-meadows; the Sagas; and the Vinland Map

13: The Church Triumphant (1000-1200)


I. The Carolingian church


a) Monasteries (St. Benedict; Pope Gregory the Great [590-604]; St. Augustine of Canterbury)

b) The growth of parish organization

c) Church provided administrators, ideological support, wealth.

II. The split between church and state


1. Only in the West: in the East, Orthodox church also expanded but remained tied to a single state.

2. The Reform Movement in the West; Cluny (founded 910; 67 houses by 1095); Leo IX and Hildebrand (Gregory VII, 1073-85); the Dictatus Papae (c. 1075)

3. The 的nvestiture Contest

a) The political fragmentation of Latin Christendom

b) John of Salisbury痴 Policraticon (1159)

c) Clerical power enhanced: Lay investiture declines; Clerical elite exalted; Papal power enhanced (Innocent III, 1198-1215)



NOTE: The mid-term will contain questions similar to -- BUT NOT THE SAME AS -- the following. You will have to answer FIVE geographical questions (out of eight) from Part A for 5% of your total grade; and ONE question (out of three) from Part B for a further 10%. All questions on the exam will relate to material covered in the textbooks, the lectures, and the recitations up to and including April 25.



1. Locate the Fertile Crescent

2. Locate the capital of Vespasian

3. Sketch in the river Ebro

4. Locate the battle of Hastings

5-8 more of the same (frontiers, battles, specific areas and geographic features of historic significance)




1. Assess the achievements of the Greek city-states


2. Charlemagne managed to unify more of western Europe into a single state than any other ruler until Napoleon, a thousand years later. Give the reasons for his remarkable success, and also explain why his empire did not long survive him.


3. In the second half of the 11th century, a succession of Popes set out to reform the Roman Church. Describe their program for reform and assess the extent to which it was achieved.
14: The Age of the Crusades (1095-1204)


Pope Urban II first called for a crusade on 27 November 1095


I. The Course of the Crusades


1. Eastward: the Wendish and Baltic crusades, 1147-1410

2. Southward: Sicily (cleared by 1090) and Spain (Tagus by 1085; Guadalquivir by 1212 -- Las Navas de Tolosa)

3. Southeast: The Holy Land or 徹utremer (First Crusade 1096-9; Fall of Jerusalem 1188-9 and third crusade; Fourth crusade (1202-4)


II. Explanations

1. The Christian schism of 1054; the defeat of Byzantium at Manzikert (1071);

2. the crumbling of Muslim power in the Near East after 1090.

3. Military power of Crusaders

a) Heavy cavalry charge: stirrup, saddle and lance (the testimony of Anna Comnena, Usamah ibn-Munqidh and the Song of Roland)

b) New style castles (e.g. Krak des Chevaliers)

c) The manpower problem (徹utremer compared with the Baltic and Spain)

15: The Twelfth Century (1100-1200)



I. The Crusaders achievements


Political; Territorial; Ideological; Religious; Intellectual


II. The 典welfth Century Renaissance


A. The major achievements

Universities; Rediscovery of Classical Literature; New Literature in Latin (Abelard, John of Salisbury) and vernacular (El Cid; Sagas; Brut; Parsifal; Niebelungenlied; Hildegard of Bingen); Gothic Style in Architecture; Music (from neumes to notes)


B. The Problem of Oriental Influence


1. Conquest (Byzantium and/or Palestine)?

2. Convivencia (Spain)?

3. Hostility of Church to any dealings with Islam


16: Feudal Europe: Church and State (1000-1250)



I. Religious Upheaval


A. The Growth of Heresy


1. Medieval heresy before 1150

2. Waldensians and Albigensians

B. New Religious Orders

1. Austin Canons (Augustinians) c. 1100

2. Cistercians c. 1150 (St Bernard of Clairvaux d. 1153)

3. Dominicans (1216; St Dominic, 1170-1221); Inquisitors from 1233)

4. Franciscans (1221; St Francis, 1182-1226)


C. The Thinking Friar: Robert Grosseteste (1168-1253); Roger Bacon (1220-92); Thomas Aquinas (1225-74)


II. Monarchs and the Military


A. After Charlemagne


The armed retainer and the rise of feudalism: fealty; military service; manorialism.


B. The Feudal Monarchies


1. Knights and castles: the 釘ayeux Tapestry (c. 1082)

2. Government Surveys: 泥omesday Book (1085-6)

3. Consensual government: Magna Carta (1215); the growth of Parliaments

17: The Black Death and after (1347-1500)


I. The Black Death in the West, 1347-52


1. Global Diffusion

2. The plague and its recurrence


II. Economic Development 1000-1347


1. Rapid population growth

2. A second urban revolution (Northern Italy; Low Countries; Hanseatic League)

3. The 擢orced draught of colonial trade.


III. The absentees of history


1. Serfs and slaves

2. Women: Christine de Pisane and 鍍he rest


IV. Reactions to the Black Death


1. Psychological dislocation: obsession with death; clerical collapse; papal autocracy and dissenters (Marsilio of Padua; John Wyclif; Thomas Kempis)

2. Social dislocation: rebellion: the Jacquerie (1358); the Peasants Revolt (1381)


18: The Renaissance (1300-1600)


I. The Visual Arts


A. Painting and Sculpture: preponderance of religious themes; perspective; perfect forms; size and shape; harmony and tension; the commercialization of art.

B. Architecture: concern for detail gives way to concern for shape.


II. Literature


A. Old tools: Humanism (e.g. Petrarch)

B. New tools: dictionaries, grammars (Antonio de Nebrija), style

C. Improved literary forms: drama (Shakespeare, Lope de Vega), essays (Montaigne, Bacon), poetry (Donne, Cames), fiction (Rabelais, Cervantes), political writing (Machiavelli). Erasmus (1466-1536)

D. New technology: printing 1450-1500


III. Learning


A. Universities

B. Schools


IV. Diffusion


A. How many communities had schools?

B. How many pupils could read?

C. The culture of the semi-literate: the Biblioth鑷ue bleue
19: Renaissance Society (1300-1600)



The physical attributes of Renaissance people:


A. The sources

1) visual Frans Hals, Gipsy Girl; Honthorst, Young woman holding a medallion; the nude (Bosch, Cranach, Grnewald versus Titian, Heinz and Rubens)

2) written -- diaries; letters; novels; government records.


B. The conclusions

1) height

2) appearance and health: von Gersdorff, Vesalius and Fallopius; Paracelsus, Harvey and Swammerdam

3) life expectation


C. The explanations

1) food: the tyranny of grain

2) disease: typhus and dysentery; smallpox and plague

3) destitution: fire, war, famine and natural disaster.

20: The Facts of Life (1300-1600)



1. The Demographic Facts

a) Overpopulation of Europe c. 1300-40

b) Catastrophic fall and stagnation c. 1348-1450

c) Population almost doubled c. 1450-1600

d) Stagnation and fall c. 1600-1670


2. Sources

Census, parish register, and 吐amily reconstitution


3. Explanations


a) the meaning of 登ver- and 砥nderpopulation

b) 鍍he four horsemen of the Apocalypse

c) factors for growth:

i) rising birth rate (falling celibacy; falling age of brides at marriage; little contraception; more knowledge about sexual functions Pietro Aretino, 1530, and Brantme, 1570)

ii) stable death rate

d) factors for stagnation:

i) falling birth rate (rising celibacy; rising age of brides at marriage; more contraception)

ii) stable or rising death rate (more 田atastrophes; more infant mortality; more wet-nursing)


3. Problem of synchronization


a) Variations in solar energy

b) Variations in Carbon-14 deposits

c) The evidence of grapes (vendange)

d) The evidence of glaciers

21: The Quality of Life (1300-1600)


I. Synopsis of Europe痴 economic history 1300-1700


a) gradual decline 1300-48

b) collapse and stagnation 1348-1450

c) accelerating growth 1450-1580; slower growth/plateau 1580-1620

d) decline and crisis 1620-60

e) recovery after 1660


II. Geography of Production


a) agricultural

1. grain exporters (Sicily and Andalusia in the south; East Germany and Poland in north)

2. livestock exporters (upland areas in Spain and Britain; Denmark)

3. urban enclaves

4. autarkic areas

b) industrial

1. Northern Italy

2. lands around the North Sea.


III. Explanations

1. technology improves

2. price revolution (the views of Jean Bodin)

3. American treasure imports (the theory of Earl J. Hamilton)

4. population: the true determinant of demand, and therefore of growth.


IV. The 鼎osts

1. servants

2. serfdom and slavery

3. urban overcrowding

4. growth of poverty

5. fear, escapism, brutality and religious fervor

22: The Reformation (1500-1560)


I. Discontent on the eve of the Reformation


A. Problems of the Catholic Church

a) 釘abylonish Captivity at Avignon (1309-78);

b) the Great Schism (1378-1417);

c) Conciliar movement: Council of Constance (1414-18) versus Jan Hus (d.1415) and John Wyclif (d. 1384).


B. The need for Reform


a) unequal spread of clergy

b) 妬mpropriation of parishes (and tithes)

c) saints and relics

d) indulgences


C. Intellectual Criticisms

a) Bible printing 1445-1520: 156 Latin; 23 French; 22 German; 12 Italian (and many more New Testaments)

b) Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1534)


II. The Reformation Challenge


A. The Indulgence issue: Martin Luther and his 95 theses (31 Oct. 1517)


B. The birth of Lutheranism

1. 撤riesthood of all believers

2. Authority of Scripture

3. 都ola fides

C. The 登ther Protestants


Zwingli (Zurich); Oecolampadius (Basel); Bucer (Strasbourg); Calvin (Geneva)


III. Explaining the success


1. The medium

2. The message

3. The prophets

4. The context

23: Reactions to the Reformation (1540-1600)



A. Why Germany and Switzerland?


1. Fragmentation: the 13 cantons; the 1000 territories of the Holy Roman Empire (especially 的mperial Free Cities: 51/65 affected).

2. Imperial distraction: 1519-20, vacancy; Turkish advance Mohacs (1526), Vienna (1529)

3. The 迭eligious Peace of Augsburg (1555) and the 展arsaw Convention (1573) grant freedom of religious choice. Yet by 1650 only 2 out of 10 Europeans refused to recognize the authority of Rome.


B. The Reformation halted


1. The Peasants War (1524-5) forces the 杜agisterial reformers to identify with the state.

2. The Counter-Reformation

a) The 鼎atholic reformation

b) The Council of Trent (1545-7, 1552, 1562-3)

c) The Inquisition (22 tribunals of the Spanish Inquisition: 1540-1700 = 49,000 known cases\

d) The New Orders (e.g. the Jesuits, founded 1534 by Ignatius Loyola)

3. A failure of evangelism?

a) too many creeds

b) too little faith
24. The empire of Charles V (1519-58)




1. Papal Monarchy: in 12th-13th centuries created bureaucracy, taxation, law, arbitration and force on an 妬mperial scale

a) Threatened by Avignon (1309-76), Schism (1378-1417) and Conciliar movement

b) Still 菟artitioned the world in 1494, but destroyed by Reformation: Papal authority only universal in the Italian and Iberian peninsulas


2. The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation: in 11th-12th centuries sacrificed power in Germany for bid to master Italy; failed: Interregnum 1250-72; compulsory elections from 1338; the 敵olden Bull 1356.

3. The Habsburgs: imperial title from 1438 (to 1806); added Burgundy/Netherlands 1477; Spain and her empire 1506; Bohemia-Hungary 1526; England (1554-8); Portugal (1580-1640).

4. Messianic Imperialism (Charles V and Philip II)




Numerous obstacles existed to counterbalance size:


1. Lack of integration

2. Mediocrity of the dynasty

3. Distance

4. Religious diversity

5. Strategic overstretch?

25. The Dutch Revolt: Spain痴 Vietnam (1560-1648)



Paul Kennedy, The rise and fall of the Great Powers, 1500-2000.

(a) the Revolt of 1566:

(i) the iconoclastic fury

(ii) the repression: 1200 executions, 12,000 condemned, 60,000 exiled

(b) the Revolt of 1572




1. The military revolution

2. Strategic overstretch

3. Political inflexibility




1. The defeat of Spain痴 釘id for mastery

(a) Dutch strengths: geography; seapower; religious conviction; international support

(b) Spain痴 ineptitude

2. Spain痴 losses: resources; reputation; European hegemony

3. The 泥utch Republic

(a) the 展elfare State

(b) freedom of thought and freedom of speech

(c) the federal model of government: 1581, 1688 and 1787.

26 The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)



I How did it start?


1. The dual crisis:

(a) would the Habsburgs achieve European hegemony?

(b) would Protestantism eventually become the dominant religion of Europe?


2. The three Bohemian Revolts: 1609, 1611, 1618

II. Why did the war last so long


1. The years of Habsburg victory: 1619-1629

2. The Edict of Restitution, 1629; the Peace of Prague (1635)

3. The intervention of Sweden (1630) and France (1635-6)


III. What did the war achieve


1. Religious frontiers of Germany fixed at circa 1618

2. Germany devastated: demographic, industrial and rural destruction unparalleled until 1940s

3. End of the 電ual crisis: no more threat of Habsburg hegemony; no more confessional politics

4. Creation of a 澱alance of power within Europe

27. Europe expands (1450-1580)


I. Making contact


A. The second expansion of Islam: the Ottomans into Europe; the Moguls into India; missionaries to southeast Asia: 1526: Mohacs and Panipat

B. Russia痴 advance to the Pacific (1584-1639)

C. The seaborne expansion of the West:

a) the maps of Ptolemy (1482); Martellus (1489); and Waldseemller (1507)

b) the critical decade: Columbus sails to America and back (1492-3); Vasco da Gama sails to India and back (1497-9); reconnaissance of Venezuela (1498) and Brazil (1500).


II. Making conquests


A.. the major conquests: Arabian Sea 1509; Bay of Bengal 1512; Mexico 1519; Peru 1534; Philippines 1571.


B. the explanations


a) Exporting the 溺ilitary Revolution of early modern Europe: new warships; new fortifications; seeking local allies

28: Europe triumphant? (1500-1650)



I. The destruction of native American and African cultures


The problem of evidence: Primo Levi, Alexander Solzhenitsyn and the testimony of 都urvivors


II. The costs of expansion


(a) to Europe: loss of men; loss of ships (and crews); costs of maintaining empires overseas

(b) to Africa: the slave trade

(c) to Asia: freedom of the seas lost

(d) to America:

(i) the 釘lack Legend (Bartolom de las Casas)

(ii) the invasion of America

(iii) the cultural destruction: Aztec religion

(iv) misreading the 澱ook of nature: the Chimu pots




NOTE: The final will contain questions similar to -- BUT NOT THE SAME AS -- the following. You will have to answer FIVE map questions (out of eight) from Part A for 5% of your total grade; ONE question (out of three) from Part B for a further 10%. These questions will be taken from material covered in the lectures and assignments since April 29. You must also answer ONE question (out of three) from Part C for a final 10% of your total grade: these questions will cover issues arising from the course as a whole




A map quiz similar to the mid-term, but related to course material since April 19




1. In the thirteenth century the mendicant orders were created and prospered. Assess their impact on Western Civilization.


2. Compare and contrast the European Renaissances of the twelfth and the fifteenth centuries.


3. A 溺ilitary Revolution occurred in early modern Europe. What was it, and what was its significance.




1. Discuss the changing role of women in Western society in the period covered by the course.


2. How can works of art (including works of literature) be used by historians as evidence for the values and life-styles of Western Society before 1650?


3. Discuss the influence of Roman culture on Western Civilization down to the 17th century.