The Short Story Magazine

Literary Societies of Republican China

(a list of important societies and factual information concerning formation, journals,
and membership, as well as relavent bibliographic sources)

Images to the left and right taken from Scott Minick and Jiao Ping,
Chinese Graphic Design in the Twentieth Century (Watson Guptil 1990)

Premodern / Late Qing / Butterfly / Conservative
May Fourth / Leftist / 1930s / War Period

Magazine Cover


Late Ming societies

Southern Society (南社; 1908-22)

National Essence Society (国粹社)

Spring Willow Society (春柳社)

Green Society (青社; founded 1922)

Star Society (星社; founded 1922)

Northern School (北派)


Critical Review (学衡 1922-31)

Tiger (甲寅; 1925-27), ed Zhang Shizhao 章士钊


Literary Research Association (文学研究会; 1920-32, though publication of the series continued until the late 40s, though organized activity ceased around 1925)
1. Members: Mao Dun, Zheng Zhenduo, Xu Dishan, Wang Tongzhao, Ye Shaojun, Geng Jizhi, Zhou Zuoren, Sun Fuyuan, Guo Shaoyu, Huang Luyin, Bing Xin

2. Goals:
3. Journals
4. Publication Series
5. Tenets:

Creation Society(创造社 1921-29)

1. Members: Guo Moruo, Yu Dafu, Cheng Fangwu, Zhang Ziping, Tian Han, Feng Yuanjun

2. Journals:

3. Tenets:
4. Radicalization of society after 1925 (May 30 Movement)

5. Important theoretical articles:

Morning Light Society (晨光社) and Lakeside Society (湖畔社)

Beijing Women's Normal College Women's Writing Group (女师大女人文艺组)

Muse Society (弥撒社)

Shallow Grass Society(浅草社)

Sturn und Drang Society (狂飙社)

Sunshine Society (曦社)

Southern Nation Society (南国社)

Spinner of Words Society (语丝社; 1924-31)

1. Origins
2. Non-dogmatic approach to literary creation
3. After 1925 - schism between Zhou brothers

4. Contributors: Qian Xuantong, Yu Pingbo, Feng Wenming (Fei Ming), Sun Fuxi, Gu Jiegang, and of course Lu Xun, whose Yecao poems were first published here

5. Yusi

Unnamed Society (未名社; 1925-30)

1. Founded by Lu Xun to translated Soviet writing
2. Publications:
3. Contributors: Wei Suyuan

Crescent Moon Society (新月社; 1923-31)

1. Founded by Xu Zhimo in 1923 but not an society with a literary platform until 1928.

2. Members: Liang Shiqiu, Wen Yiduo, Shen Congwen, Rao Mengkan, Hu Shi, Xu Zhimo

3. Journals

4. Important positional articles
5. Tenets
6. Opposition


Sun Society (太阳社; 1928)
1. Members: Qian Xingcun (A Ying), Jiang Guangzi, Yang Cunren.

2. Journals

3. Tenets

4. Affiliations

5. Debates

League of Left-Wing Writers (左翼作家联盟; 1930-36)

1. Established by leftist writers in an attempt to end literary bickering and attack the real enemies (Xinyue pai)
2. Important league articles:
3. organized three research societies in connection with League
4. Journals:
5. Sources


Neo-Sensationists (新感觉派)

National Literature group (民族主义文学)

Analects Group (论语)

1. Members
2. Journals
3. Tenets
4. In the Field

Yuefeng pai (越风派)


July Group (七月社; 1937-55)

Zhanguo ce (战国策; 1940-41)

All-China Literary Resistance Association (中华全国文艺界抗敌协会; 1938-45)

Cultural Work Committee (文化工作委员会; 1940-45)

Nine Leaves School (九叶派)