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Marjorie K.M. Chan

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ohio state university

OSU Oval in spring       

SPRING QUARTER 2012

CHINESE 889

Seminar in Chinese Linguistics
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Chinese Dialect Research
on Language Variation and Change
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Professor Marjorie K.M. Chan
Dept. of East Asian Langs. & Lits.
The Ohio State University
Columbus, OH 43210
U.S.A.
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COURSE: Chinese 889. Seminar in Chinese Linguistics
Topic:   Chinese Dialect Research on Language Variation and Change
Class No. & Credit Hours:   26378   3-5 credits.   G
Prerequisites:   Permission of instructor
(*Repeatable to a maximum of 20 credit hours.)
Course page:   http://people.cohums.ohio-state.edu/chan9/c889.htm
TIME & PLACE: R   01:30 - 4:18 p.m.
071 Hagerty Hall (1775 College Road)
(multimedia classroom with computer and internet connection)
OFFICE HOURS: R   11:00 - 1:00 p.m., or by appointment
Office:   362 Hagerty Hall   (1775 College Road)
Tel:        292.3619   (292.5816 for messages, 292.3225 for faxes)
E-mail:   chan.9at.symbolosu.edu
MC's Home Page:
MC's ChinaLinks:   
people.cohums.ohio-state.edu/chan9
ChinaLinks.osu.edu
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TEXTBOOK

Chambers, J.K., Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes (eds.). 2004. The Handbook of Language Variation and Change. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. [The hardcover (2002) edition of this book is available at six OhioLINK libraries, including OSU Libraries. Selected chapters are used in this course.]

Additional Readings: Other readings for the course consist primarily of e-journal articles. Reading selections will be in PDF format and will be available from e-journals or will be made available from OSU's Closed Reserve, E-Reserves and/or other sources in Carmen.

Thompson (Main) Library Reserve and Electronic Reserves:
The textbook and some reference books are placed in Closed Reserve at Thompson (Main) Library. Loan periods vary, with the textbook on 4-hour loans. (Note: Reserved materials in Closed Reserve are for the specified quarter only.) Check Ohio State University Libraries <library.osu.edu> for an online list of books and readings placed on Reserve and on E-Reserves for Chinese 889. Under Quicklinks, select either “Print Reserves by Course” or “Print Reserves by Professor” for books, or “eReserves in Carmen” for readings in PDF format.

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COURSE DESCRIPTION

This seminar explores issues pertaining to the different varieties ("dialects") of the Chinese language, focussing on topics pertaining to language variation and change. Topics include synchronic and diachronic issues pertaining to language contact, linguistic variation, and language change. The course will also harness tech tools and provide opportunities for creating and developing corpora for the study of language variation and change.
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COURSE OBJECTIVES & EXPECTED OUTCOMES

The course aims to provide students with opportunities to explore and examine, through assigned and student-selected readings, the study of linguistic data (existing and students' own corpora), issues and topics pertaining to language variation and change. Important theories and methodologies will be introduced during the course in connection with the readings.

Students should, at the end of the course, gain a deeper understanding of the theories and methodologies used in linguistics to analyze language variation and change, and be able to apply some of what they have learned to their future research.

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COURSE CONTENT

The course will be conducted through lectures, hands-on demos of tech tools, and discussions of assigned and student-selected readings. Sound files and other multimedia materials will be presented in class for analysis and discussion. In-class assignments include analyses of phenomena pertaiining to language variation. Individual assignments include each student presenting, and leading, the discussion of two readings (for 3 credits) or 3 readings (for 5 credits). Readings will be selected by the student in consultation with the instructor. Students will also submit a final project consisting of a small corpus that they developed during the course (individually or as a small group of 2 to 4 students) and a linguistic analysis of that corpus from language variation perspective as their final project.
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STUDENT RESPONSIBILITIES

  1. Read the assigned readings prior to class.
  2. Attend class regularly.
  3. Participate actively in class discussions and individual/group activities.
  4. Present two readings (or three* in the case of those taking the course for 5 credits) for class discussion. Prepare a handout (.doc or .docx file) and upload the file to the Group Locker in Carmen by evening before class (or early that morning at the latest, to enable classmates to download and print a copy to bring to class if they so wish).
    * The third reading presentation may be substituted by an alternative assignment, subject to approval of the instructor.
  5. For the final project:

DISABILITY SERVICES

Students with disabilities that have been certified by the Office for Disability Services will be appropriately accommodated, and should inform the instructor as soon as possible of their needs. The Office for Disability Services is located in 150 Pomerene Hall, 1760 Neil Avenue (Tel: 292.3307. TDD: 292.0901)

ACADEMIC INTEGRITY (ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT)

Academic integrity is essential to maintaining an environment that fosters excellence in teaching, research, and other educational and scholarly activities. Failure to follow the rules and guidelines established in OSU's Code of Student Conduct may constitute “Academic Misconduct.” OSU's Code of Student Conduct (section 3335-23-04 Prohibited conduct) defines as academic misconduct “[a]ny activity that tends to compromise the academic integrity of the university, or subvert the educational process.” Examples of academic misconduct include (but are not limited to) plagiarism, collusion (unauthorized collaboration), copying the work of another student, possession of unauthorized materials during an examination, and submission of the same work for credit in two (or more) courses. Ignorance of the University's Code of Student Conduct is never considered an “excuse” for academic misconduct; hence, be sure to review the sections dealing with academic misconduct in the Code of Student Conduct. Be sure also to read the University's Ten Suggestions for Preserving Academic Integrity and/or the Eight Cardinal Rules of Academic Integrity (from Northwestern U.). The University's policy on academic misconduct will be enforced in accordance with Faculty Rule 3335-5-54, and all alleged cases of academic misconduct will be reported to the Office of Academic Affairs' Committee on Academic Misconduct (COAM) for resolution. In addition, graduate students should be familiar with the Graduate Student Code of Research and Scholarly Conduct (pdf). Students with questions concerning the University's policies or questions concerning academic or research misconduct are encouraged to ask the instructor any time during the quarter.
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GRADING

3 CREDITS:   5 CREDITS:
Attendance and class participation 20% Attendance and class participation 15%
Article Presentations (2) 40% Article Presentations (3) 45%
Final Project 40% Final Project 40%
  ------   ------
  100%   100%
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SCHEDULE

This class meets every Thursday afternoon during the quarter.

WEEK 1 Next Schedule back to top Introduction
March 29
  • Introduction and orientation to the course, reading selections, etc.


WEEK 2 Next Schedule back to top Public and Written Corpora for Research on Language Variation and Change
April 5 Readings presentation, discussion, and other class activities using Chinese data
  • Readings:
    - Preston (2004)
    - Schneider (2004)
    - Bauer (2004)

  • Mini-Session:
    - Concordancing software programs and online searchable concordances of Chinese e-texts.


WEEK 3 Next Schedule back to top Audio-Recording, Instrumental Phonetics, and Hypercorrection
April 12 Readings presentation, discussion, and other class activities using Chinese data
  • Readings:
    - Margetts & Margetts (2012)
    - Thomas (2004)
    - Chung (2006)

  • Group Mini-Session:
    - Digital recorders, speech analysis software (e.g., Praat), etc.
    - Harrington (2010, Chapter 1) - background reading

Workshop on Prosodic Annotation
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13-14 April 2012
Mendenhall Laboratory, Room 115
125 S. Oval Mall
The Ohio State University
Program Online

Organizing Committee: Rachel S. Burdin, Cynthia G. Clopper, Iskra Iskrova,
Sara Phillips-Bourass, Judith Tonhauser, Rory Turnbull, Murat Yasavul


WEEK 4 Next Schedule back to top Word Order Variation and Social Factors in Language Variation
April 19 Readings presentation, discussion, and other class activities using Chinese data
  • Readings:
    - Ming & Chen (2009)
    - Roberts (2004)
    - Chambers (2004)
    ...........................
  • Recording Session (optional attendance) -- 4:30 - 5:18
    - Hands-on recording with digital recorders and external microphones
    - Analyzing using Praat
    - Recording and analyzing using Praat
    - Note: Be sure to install Praat onto your notebook before class.


WEEK 5 Next Schedule back to top Discourse Variation
April 26 Readings presentation, discussion, and other class activities using Chinese data


WEEK 6 Next Schedule back to top Gender and Identity in Language Variation
May 3 Readings presentation, discussion, and other class activities using Chinese data
  • Readings:
    - Cheshire (2004)
    - Cao (2007)
    - Mendoza-Denton (2004)


WEEK 7 Next Schedule back to top Spatial Diffusion and Language Contact
May 10 Readings presentation, discussion, and other class activities using Chinese data
  • Readings:
    - Britain (2004)
    - Miao and Li (2006)
    - Stanford (2008)
    - Crosland (1998)

Dr. Nancy Caplow
Oklahoma State University

"Linguistic fieldwork in the Tibetan language area"
May 10, Mendenhall 174, 12:15 p.m.

Dr. Caplow will discuss her experiences doing fieldwork on Tibetan languages in Nepal.


WEEK 8 Next Schedule back to top Dialect Mutual Intelligibility and Contact Explanations in Linguistics
May 17 Readings presentation, discussion, and other class activities using Chinese data
  • Readings:
    - Tang and van Heuven (2009)
    - Thomason (2010)
    - Zhou (2006)

  • Mini-Session:
    - Scripting in Praat - S. Wiener


WEEK 9 Next Schedule back to topTypology, Language Vitality and Endangerment, and Other Topics
May 24 Readings presentation, discussion, and other class activities using Chinese data


WEEK 10 Next Schedule back to top Final Week Activities
May 31
  • Student Presentations of Final Project


WEEK 11 Schedule back to top Examination Week
June 5
  • Submission of Final Project. (Request for extension must be made by the start of Week 10.)

    Due: Tuesday, 5 June 2012, 12:00 noon.


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READINGS

Weekly topics and readings will be finalized after the first couple of weeks of classes. E-journal articles -- such as those in Language Variation and Change -- are available at OSU Libraries: Online Journals List and/or OhioLINK Electronic Journal Center (EJC). Other readings will be available in Carmen from Electronic Reserves and other sources during the quarter. References and supplementary (optional) readings placed in Thompson (Main) Library are listed at OSU Libraries under "Reserves by Course" and "Reserves by Professor").
  1. Bauer, Laurie. 2004. Inferring variation and change from public corpora. In: The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, edited by J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Pages 97-114.
  2. Britain, David. 2004. Space and spatial diffusion. In: The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, edited by J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Pages 603-637.
  3. Cao, Xianghong. 2007. The effect of age and gender on the choice of address forms in Chinese personal letters. Journal of Sociolinguistics 11/3.392-407.
  4. Chambers, J.K. 2004. Patterns of variation including change. In: The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, edited by J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Pages 349-372.
  5. Cheshire, Jenny. 2004. Sex and gender in variationist research. In: The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, edited by J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Pages 423-443.
  6. Chung, Karen Steffen. 2006. Hypercorrection in Taiwan Mandarin. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 16.2.197-214.
  7. Crosland (1998) Yes-No question patterns in Southern Min: Variation across some dialects in Min. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 7.257-285.
  8. Harrington, Jonathan. 2010. Phonetic Analysis of Speech Corpora. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Excerpts: Chapter 1. Using speech corpora in phonetic research (pages 1-19); Chapter 2. Some tools for building and querying annotated speech databases (pages 20-45).]
  9. Kuo, Sai-hua. 2007. Social change and discursive change: analyzing conversationalization of media discourse in Taiwan. Discourse Studies 9.6.743-765.
  10. Lee, Phoebe S.K. and Alan H.S. Chan. 2003. Chinese speaking times. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 31.313–321.
  11. Macaulay, Ronald. 2004. Discourse variation. In: The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, edited by J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Pages 283-305.
  12. Margetts, Anna and Andrew Margetts. 2012. Audio and video recording techniques for linguistic research. The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Fieldwork, edited by Nicolas Thieberger. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Pages 13-53. [Note: Read pages 14-32 only.]
  13. Mendoza-Denton, Norma. 2004. Language and identity. In: The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, edited by J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Pages 475-499.
  14. Miao, Ruiqin and Jiaxuan Li. 2006. Urban migration and functional bilingualism in Guangdong Province, China. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 16.2.237-257.
  15. Ming, Tao and Liang Chen. 2010. A discourse-pragmatic study of the word order variation in Chinese relative clauses. Journal of Pragmatics 42.168-189.
  16. Preston, Dennis R. 2004. Language with an attitude. In: The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, edited by J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Pages 40-66.
  17. Roberts, Julie. 2004. Child language variation. In: The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, edited by J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Pages 333-348.
  18. Schneider, Edgar W. 2004. Investigating variation and change in written documents. In: The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, edited by J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Pages 67-96.
  19. Shen, Haibing. 1997. Gender and Conversational Interaction in Mandarin Chinese: A Corpus-Based Study of Radio Talk Shows. M.A. thesis, Ohio State University.
  20. Stanford, James N. 2008. A sociotonetic analysis of Sui dialect contact. Language Variation and Change 20.3.409-450.
  21. Tang, Chaoju and Vincent J. van Heuven. 2009. Mutual intelligibility of Chinese dialects experimentally tested. Lingua 119.5.709-732.
  22. Thomas, Erik R. 2004. Instrumental phonetics. In: The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, edited by J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Pages 168-200.
  23. Thomason, Sarah. 2010. Contact explanations in linguistics. In: The Handbook of Language Contact, edited by Raymond Hickey. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Pages 31-47.
  24. Trudgill, Peter. 2004. Linguistic and social typology. In: The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, edited by J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Pages 707-728.
  25. UNESCO. 2003. Language Vitality and Endangerment. (PDF)
    UNESCO: A methodology for assessing language vitality and endangerment.
  26. Wolfram, Walt. 2004. Language death and dying. In: The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, edited by J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Pages 764-787.
  27. Zhou, Minglang. 2006. Theorizing language contact, spread, and variation in status planning: A case study of Modern Standard Chinese. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 16.2.159-174.
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SOME SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS AND REFERENCES


  1. Bai, Jianhua. 1994. Language attitude and the spread of Standard Chinese in China. Language Problems & Language Planning 18.2.128-138.
  2. Beijing Daxue (北京大學中國語言文學系語言學敎研室編). 1964. Hanyu Fangyan Cihui. (漢語方言詞匯) Beijing: Yuwen Chubanshe. Beijing: Wenzi Gaige Chubanshe. [PL1497 .P47] (Use in Library - EAS Reading Room)
  3. Beijing Daxue (北京大學中國語言文學系語言學敎研室編). 1989. Hanyu Fangyin Zihui. (漢語方音字匯) Second edition. Beijing: Wenzi Gaige Chubanshe. [PL1201 .P4 1989 B c2] (Main Library has three copies.)
  4. Beijing Daxue (北京大學中國語言文學系語言學敎研室編). 1989. Hanyu Fangyin Zihui. ( 漢語方音字匯) Second edition. Beijing: Wenzi Gaige Chubanshe.
  5. Blum, Susan D. 2004. Good to hear: Using the trope of standard to find one's way in a sea of linguistic diversity. In: Language Policy in the People's Republic of China: Theory and Practice Since 1949, edited by Minglang Zhou. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Pages 123-141.
  6. Braunmüller, Kurt and Juliane House. 2009. Convergence and Divergence in Language Contact Situations. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Pub. Co. [electronic resource]
  7. Callier, Patrick. 2011. On the edge: The sociophonetics of boundary tones and final lengthening in Mandarin Chinese. eVox 5:16-36.
  8. Cao Zhiyun (曹志耘) (chief compiler). 2008. Hanyu Fangyan Ditu Ji. Cihui Juan. (汉语方言地图集. 词汇卷). Beijing: Shangwu Yinshuguan.
  9. Cao Zhiyun (曹志耘) (chief compiler). 2008. Hanyu Fangyan Ditu Ji. Yufa Juan. (汉语方言地图集. 语法卷). Beijing: Shangwu Yinshuguan.
  10. Cao Zhiyun (曹志耘) (chief compiler). 2008. Hanyu Fangyan Ditu Ji. Yuyin Juan. (汉语方言地图集. 语音卷). Beijing: Shangwu Yinshuguan.
  11. Chan, Marjorie K.M. 1983. Lexical diffusion and two Chinese case studies re-analyzed. Acta Orientalia 44.118-152.
  12. Chan, Marjorie K.M. 1996. Gender-marked speech in Cantonese: The case of sentence-final particles je and jek. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 26.1/2 (Spring/Fall 1996).1-38.
  13. Chan, Marjorie K.M. 1997. Gender differences in the Chinese language: A preliminary report. Proceedings of the Ninth North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics. Two volumes, edited by Hua Lin. Los Angeles: GSIL Publications, University of Southern California. Volume 2. Pages 35-52.
  14. Chan, Marjorie K.M. 1998. Sentence particles je and jek in Cantonese and their distribution across gender and sentence types. Engendering Communication: Proceedings of the Fifth Berkeley Women and Language Conference. April 24-26, 1998, Berkeley, California. Edited by Suzanne Wertheim, Ashlee Bailey, and Monica Corston-Oliver. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Women and Language Group. Pages 117-128.
  15. Chiu, Rosaline Kwan-wai. 1970. Language Contact and Language Planning in China (1900-1967); A Selected Bibliography, and a preface by William F. Mackey. Quebec, Canada: International Center for Research on bilingualism [by] Les Presses de l'Université Laval.
  16. Feifel, Karl-Eugen. 1994. Language Attitudes in Taiwan: A Social Evaluation of Language in Social Change. Taipei: Crane Publishing Co., Ltd.
  17. Hashimoto, Mantaro J. 1983. 'Pan', 'dish', 'drink' in Chinese: A case study of longitudinal and latitudinal developments of languages. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 11.1.1-35.
  18. Hickey, Raymond (ed.). 2010. The Handbook of Language Contact. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
  19. Hsu, Joseph H. 1987. A sociolinguistic survey of language attitudes in the Taipei area. In: Chinese-Western Encounter: Studies in Linguistics and Literature, edited by Agatha C. Bramkamp et al. Taipei: Chinese Materials Center. Pages 369-381.
  20. Lai, Mee-ling. 2005. Language attitudes of the first postcolonial generation in Hong Kong secondary schools. Language in Society 34.3.363-388.
  21. Li, Fang-kuei. 1973. Languages and dialects of China. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 1.1.1-13. (Originally published in The Chinese Yearbook (1937), pp.59-65. Shanghai: Commercial Press.)
  22. Li, Rong (李榮). 1989a. Zhongguode yuyan he fangyan (中國的語言和方言) [Languages and dialects in China] Fangyan (方言) 1989.3.161-167.
  23. Li, Rong (李榮). 1989b. Hanyu fangyande fenqu (漢語方言的分區) [The classification of the Chinese dialects] Fangyan (方言) 1989.4.241-259. (See also: Wurm et al. below.)
  24. Norman, Jerry. 1988. Chinese. Cambridge U. Press. [PL1075 .N67 1988]
    Chinese translation: Zhang, Huiying (張惠英) (trans.) 1995. Hanyu Gaishuo. (漢語概說) Beijing: Yuwen Chubanshe. (NB: The translation is useful since no Chinese characters are included in Jerry Norman's book. Note, however, that Prof. Norman may not necessarily agree with all portions of the translation of his book per se.) [PL1075 .N67142 1995]
  25. Ratté, Alexander Takenobu. 2011. Contact-Induced Phonological Change in Taiwanese. M.A. thesis, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. [electronic resource]
  26. Sankoff, Gillian. 2004. Linguistic outcomes of language contact. In: The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, edited by J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Pages 638-668.
  27. Tagliamonte, Sali A. 2012. Variationist Sociolinguistics: Change, Observation, Interpretation. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
  28. Wang, William S-Y. (ed.) 1991. Languages and Dialects of China. Journal of Chinese Linguistics. Monograph Series Number 3.
  29. Wurm, Stephen Adolphe, et al. (general editors). 1987. Language Atlas of China [Chinese title: Zhongguo Yuyan Ditu Ji (中國語言地圖集)]. Part 1. Hong Kong: Longman (Far East) Ltd. (Part 2 was published in 1991.)
    (This was an eight-year long bilingual (Chinese and English) joint research project between researchers at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and the Australian Academy of Humanities, Australia National U. Principal Chinese linguists from the two institutions leading the project were Li Rong and Benjamin T'sou respectively.)
  30. Xiong Zhenghui (熊正辉) and Zhang Zhenxing (张振兴). 2008. Hanyu fangyan de fenqu (汉语方言的分区) [Classification / Distribution of Chinese Dialects] Fangyan (方言) 2008.2.97-108.
  31. Xiong Zhenghui (熊正辉), Zhang Zhenxing (张振兴), and Huang Xing (黄行). 2008. Zhongguo de yuyan (中国的语言) [Languages of China] Fangyan (方言) 2008.3.193-203.
  32. Yuan, Jiahua (袁家驊). 1989. Hanyu Fangyan Gaiyao (漢語方言概要). Second edition. Beijing: Wenzi Gaige Chubanshe.
  33. Zhang, Qing. 2005. A Chinese yuppie in Beijing: Phonological variation and the construction of a new professional identity. Language in Society 34.431-466.
  34. Zhang, Qing. 2007. Cosmopolitanism and linguistic capital in China: Language, gender and the transition to a globalized market economy in Beijing. In: Words, Worlds and Material Girls: Language, Gender, Global Economies, edited by Bonnie McElhinny. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Pages 403-422.
  35. Zhang, Qing. 2008. Rhotacization and the Beijing smooth operator: The social meaning of a linguistic variable. Journal of Sociolinguistics 12.2.201-222.
  36. Zhongguo Da Baike Quanshu: Yuyan Wenzi (中國大百科全書: 語言   文字). 1988. Volume 15. Beijing and Shanghai: Zhongguo Da Baike Quanshu Chubanshe. [EAS AE17 C57 V.15 A1] (Use in Library - EAS Reading Room)
  37. Zhongguo Shehui Kexueyuan Yuyan Yanjiusuo (中國社會科學院語言研究所). 1981. Fangyan Diaocha Zibiao (方言調查字表). Beijing: Shangwu Yinshuguan.
  38. Zhou, Minglang. 2001. The spread of Putonghua and language attitude changes in Shanghai and Guangzhou, China. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 11.2.231-253.
  39. Zhou, Zhenhe and Rujie You (周振鶴, 游汝杰). 2006. Fangyan yu Zhongguo Wenhua (方言与中国文化) [Dialect and Chinese Culture]. Second edition. Shanghai: Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe.
  40. ... more to be added ...
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SOME ONLINE RESOURCES